Objective(s): The incidence of urinary tract stone disease is steadily increasing in both adult and paediatric populations. This condition develops due to different factors: dietary or metabolic alterations, infection, and congenital anatomic malformations. Standard indications and treatments for children are analogous to the ones indicated for adults. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, ureterorenoscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) should be preferred to more invasive techniques. Moreover, the introduction of laparoscopic and robot-assisted laparoscopic approaches have improved surgical outcomes, lowering the bleeding risk with higher stone-free rates, even in complicated cases. Despite these well-known improvements, there are few reports regarding laparoscopic robot-assisted management for urinary tract stone disease in paediatric patients under the age of 10, especially with concomitant treatment of ureteropelvic junction obstruction and multiple calyceal stones. Patient and Method(s): A 4-year-old child was referred for recurrent right abdominal flank pain, macroscopic haematuria and a previous history of urinary tract infections. A computed tomography of the abdomen showed right ureteropelvic junction obstruction associated with multiple unilateral stones located in the renal pelvis and in the interpolar renal calyces. Due to its complexity, we held a multidisciplinary meeting with paediatric surgeons and nephrologists to determine optimal treatment. As a result, a combined robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty (LP) and renal calculi holmium laser lithotripsy using a digital flexible ureteroscope through an abdominal robotic trocar was performed. No post-surgical complications were recorded, and the patient was discharged within 48 h following surgery. At subsequent regular follow-up examinations over a period of 24 months, no signs of recurrence were detected for both ureteropelvic junction obstruction and stone disease. Result(s): Robot-assisted LP with concomitant laser lithotripsy is a reasonable treatment option for designated young paediatric patients with challenging ureteropelvic junction obstruction complicated by urolithiasis, especially in cases where stones are not amenable with standard procedures.
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