European self-sufficiency in the battery sector is one of the major EU needs. The key lithiumion batteries (LIBs) materials demand is expected to increase in the next decade as a consequence of the increment in the LIBs production and a massive amount of spent LIBs will flood global markets. Hence, these waste streams would be a potential source of secondary raw materials to be valorized, under the principle of circular economy. European governments first, and then companies in the battery sector second, are addressing many efforts in improving legislation on batteries and accumulators. This study explores the current legislative aspects, the main perspective from the producer’s point of view, and the possibility to guarantee a proper recycle of spent LIBs. A monitoring proposal by means of a survey has been carried out and the Italian context, which has been taken as an example of the European context, and it was used to evaluate the practical implication of the current legislation. The main result of the survey is that a specific identification as well as regulations for LIBs are needed. The benefit from a cradle-to-cradle circular economy is still far from the actual situation but several industrial examples and ongoing European projects show the importance and feasibility of the reuse (e.g., second life) and recycle of LIBs.
An exploratory study of the policies and legislative perspectives on the end-of-life of lithium-ion batteries from the perspective of producer obligation / Giosuè, Chiara; Marchese, D.; Cavalletti, M.; Isidori, R.; Conti, M.; Orcioni, S.; Ruello, M. L.; Stipa, P.. - In: SUSTAINABILITY. - ISSN 2071-1050. - ELETTRONICO. - 13:20(2021), p. 11154. [10.3390/su132011154]