Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and attentional deficits are often observed in people with epilepsy. They may be the consequence of seizures and subclinical discharges as well as of comorbid conditions as obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAS), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or other less frequent disorders. Excessive daytime sleepiness may also be caused or worsened by antiseizure medications (ASMs). Several meta-analyses suggested that lamotrigine, lacosamide, and perhaps eslicarbazepine are less sedative than other traditional and new ASMs and, in patients prone to somnolence, might be preferred over ASMs with more sedative properties. In patients with severe EDS and/or ADHD, advantages and risks of a treatment with a psychostimulant need to be considered. Methylphenidate, modafinil, armodafinil, pitolisant, and solriamfetol are authorized for use in ADHD and EDS in patients with narcolepsy and some of them also in OSAS. These agents are off-label for the treatment of EDS associated with epilepsy. They do not have proconvulsant effects, although there are several possible risks for patients with epilepsy. The risks of cardiovascular events and psychiatric symptoms should be carefully evaluated as such disorders can coexist with epilepsy and be triggered by these agents. Finally, combination of psychostimulants with ASMs may be associated with several pharmacokinetic drug–drug interactions.

Drugs for patients with epilepsy and excessive daytime sleepiness

Lattanzi S.
2021

Abstract

Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and attentional deficits are often observed in people with epilepsy. They may be the consequence of seizures and subclinical discharges as well as of comorbid conditions as obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAS), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or other less frequent disorders. Excessive daytime sleepiness may also be caused or worsened by antiseizure medications (ASMs). Several meta-analyses suggested that lamotrigine, lacosamide, and perhaps eslicarbazepine are less sedative than other traditional and new ASMs and, in patients prone to somnolence, might be preferred over ASMs with more sedative properties. In patients with severe EDS and/or ADHD, advantages and risks of a treatment with a psychostimulant need to be considered. Methylphenidate, modafinil, armodafinil, pitolisant, and solriamfetol are authorized for use in ADHD and EDS in patients with narcolepsy and some of them also in OSAS. These agents are off-label for the treatment of EDS associated with epilepsy. They do not have proconvulsant effects, although there are several possible risks for patients with epilepsy. The risks of cardiovascular events and psychiatric symptoms should be carefully evaluated as such disorders can coexist with epilepsy and be triggered by these agents. Finally, combination of psychostimulants with ASMs may be associated with several pharmacokinetic drug–drug interactions.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11566/292367
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