Several hormones contribute to ensure penile erection, a neurovascular phenomenon in which nitric oxide plays a major role. Erectile dysfunction (ED), which is defined as the persistent inability to obtain or maintain penile erection sufficient for a satisfactory sexual performance, may be due to arteriogenic, neurogenic, iatrogenic, but also endocrinological causes. The hypothalamus-pituitary axis plays a central role in the endocrine system and represents a fundamental link between the brain and peripheral glands, including gonads. Therefore, the hormonal production of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis can control various aspects of sexual function and its dysregulation can compromise erectile function. In addition, excess and deficiency of pituitary hormones or metabolic alterations that are associated with some pituitary diseases (e.g., Cushing's disease and acromegaly, hypopituitarism) can determine the development of ED with different mechanisms. Thus, the present review aimed to explore the relationship between hypothalamic and pituitary diseases based on the most recent clinical and experimental evidence.

Hypothalamic-Pituitary Diseases and Erectile Dysfunction / Salvio, Gianmaria; Martino, Marianna; Giancola, Giulia; Arnaldi, Giorgio; Balercia, Giancarlo. - In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE. - ISSN 2077-0383. - 10:12(2021). [10.3390/jcm10122551]

Hypothalamic-Pituitary Diseases and Erectile Dysfunction

Salvio, Gianmaria;Martino, Marianna;Giancola, Giulia;Arnaldi, Giorgio
Penultimo
;
Balercia, Giancarlo
Ultimo
2021-01-01

Abstract

Several hormones contribute to ensure penile erection, a neurovascular phenomenon in which nitric oxide plays a major role. Erectile dysfunction (ED), which is defined as the persistent inability to obtain or maintain penile erection sufficient for a satisfactory sexual performance, may be due to arteriogenic, neurogenic, iatrogenic, but also endocrinological causes. The hypothalamus-pituitary axis plays a central role in the endocrine system and represents a fundamental link between the brain and peripheral glands, including gonads. Therefore, the hormonal production of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis can control various aspects of sexual function and its dysregulation can compromise erectile function. In addition, excess and deficiency of pituitary hormones or metabolic alterations that are associated with some pituitary diseases (e.g., Cushing's disease and acromegaly, hypopituitarism) can determine the development of ED with different mechanisms. Thus, the present review aimed to explore the relationship between hypothalamic and pituitary diseases based on the most recent clinical and experimental evidence.
2021
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11566/291882
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