Production of cost-efficient composite materials with desired physicochemical properties from low-cost waste material is much needed to meet the growing needs of the industrial sector. As a step forward, the current study reports for the first time an effective utilization of industrial metal (inorganic) waste as well as fall leaves (organic waste), to produce three types of nanomaterials at the same time; “Titanium Doped Activated Carbon Nanostructures (Ti-ACNs)”, “Nanocellulose (NCel)”, and combination of both “Titanium Doped Activated Carbon Cellulose Nanocomposite (Ti-AC-Cel-NC)”. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and microanalysis (EDXS) measurements reveal that the Ti-ACNs material is formed by Ti-nanostructures, generally poorly crystalized but in some cases forming hexagonal Ti-crystallites of 15 nm, embedded in mutated graphene clouds. Micro- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (micro-FTIR) confirms that the chemical structure of NCel with bond vibrations between 1035 to 2917 cm 1 remained preserved during Ti-AC-Cel-NC formation. The prepared materials (Ti-ACNs, Ti-AC-Cel-NC) have demonstrated rapid removal of organic pollutants (Crystal Violet, Methyl Violet) from wastewater through surface adsorption and photocatalysis. In the first 20 min, Ti-ACNs have adsorbed ≈87% of the organic pollutants and further photocatalyzed them up to ≈96%. When Ti-ACNs are combined with NCel, their efficiency is increased of about four times. This performance originates from the adsorption by mutated graphene-like carbon and assisted photocatalysis by Ti nanostructures as well as the good supporting capacity of NCel for the homogenous Ti-ACNs distribution.
Transformation of industrial and organic waste into titanium doped activated carbon – cellulose nanocomposite for rapid removal of organic pollutants / Maqbool, Qaisar; Barucca, Gianni; Sabbatini, Simona; Parlapiano, Marco; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Tittarelli, Francesca. - In: JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. - ISSN 0304-3894. - STAMPA. - 423:126958(2022), pp. -15.