The use of probiotics has been recently considered a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent pathologies such as obesity; however, the specific mechanisms of action by which probiotics exert their beneficial effects on metabolic health remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the short-term effects of a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus supplementation (PROB) on appetite regulation, growth-related markers, and microbiota diversity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae, compared to a group subjected to a constant darkness photoperiod (DARK), as well as to evaluate the effects of both treatments on melatonin receptors' expression. After a 24 h treatment, both PROB and DARK conditions caused a significant increase in leptin a expression. Moreover, mRNA abundances of leptin b and proopiomelanocortin a were elevated in the PROB group, and DARK showed a similar tendency, supporting a negative regulation of appetite markers by the treatments. Moreover, both PROB and DARK also enhanced the abundances of melatonin receptors transcript (melatonin receptor 1 ba and bb) and protein (melatonin receptor 1) suggesting a potential involvement of melatonin in mediating these effects. Nevertheless, treatments did not exhibit a significant effect on the expression of most of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis genes evaluated. Finally, only the DARK condition significantly modulated gut microbiota diversity at such short time, altogether highlighting the rapid effects of this probiotic on modulating appetite regulatory and melatonin receptors' expression, without a concomitant variation of gut microbiota.
The probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus mimics the dark-driven regulation of appetite markers and melatonin receptors' expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae: Understanding the role of the gut microbiome / Lutfi, E.; Basili, D.; Falcinelli, S.; Morillas, L.; Carnevali, O.; Capilla, E.; Navarro, I.. - In: COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY. PART B, BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY. - ISSN 1096-4959. - 256:(2021), p. 110634. [10.1016/j.cbpb.2021.110634]