The 2021 novelties in prognostic and therapeutic tissue markers in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) can be subdivided into two major groups. The first group is related to prognostic markers based on morphological and immunohistochemical evaluations. The novelties in this group can then be subdivided into two subgroups, one involving morphologic evaluation only, i.e., PCa grading, and the other involving both morphologic and immunohistochemical evaluations, i.e., aggressive variant PCa (AVPCa). Grading concerns androgen-dependent PCa, while AVPCa represents a late phase in its natural history, when it becomes androgen-independent. The novelties of the other major group are related to molecular markers predicting significant disease or response to therapy. This group mainly includes novelties in the molecular evaluation of PCa in tissue material and liquid biopsies.
Prostate cancer in 2021: Novelties in prognostic and therapeutic biomarker evaluation / Cimadamore, A.; Mazzucchelli, R.; Lopez-Beltran, A.; Massari, F.; Santoni, M.; Scarpelli, M.; Cheng, L.; Montironi, R.. - In: CANCERS. - ISSN 2072-6694. - 13:14(2021), p. 3471. [10.3390/cancers13143471]