Approximately 23% of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancers (mCRPC) harbor deleterious aberrations in DNA repair genes. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (PARPi) therapy has shown improvements in overall survival in patients with mCRPC who harbor somatic and/or germline alterations of homology recombination repair (HRR) genes. Peripheral blood samples are typically used for the germline mutation analysis test using the DNA extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes. Somatic alterations can be assessed by extracting DNA from a tumor tissue sample or using circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) extracted from a plasma sample. Each of these genetic tests has its own benefits and limitations. The main advantages compared to the tissue test are that liquid biopsy is a non-invasive and easily repeatable test with the value of better representing tumor heterogeneity than primary biopsy and of capturing changes and/or resistance mutations in the genetic tumor profile during disease progression. Furthermore, ctDNA can inform about mutation status and guide treatment options in patients with mCRPC. Clinical validation and test implementation into routine clinical practice are currently very limited. In this review, we discuss the state of the art of the ctDNA test in prostate cancer compared to blood and tissue testing. We also illustrate the ctDNA testing workflow, the available techniques for ctDNA extraction, sequencing, and analysis, describing advantages and limits of each techniques.

Circulating tumor dna testing for homology recombination repair genes in prostate cancer: From the lab to the clinic

Cimadamore A.;Santoni M.;Pepi L.;Franzese C.;Scarpelli M.;Galosi A. B.;Montironi R.
2021

Abstract

Approximately 23% of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancers (mCRPC) harbor deleterious aberrations in DNA repair genes. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (PARPi) therapy has shown improvements in overall survival in patients with mCRPC who harbor somatic and/or germline alterations of homology recombination repair (HRR) genes. Peripheral blood samples are typically used for the germline mutation analysis test using the DNA extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes. Somatic alterations can be assessed by extracting DNA from a tumor tissue sample or using circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) extracted from a plasma sample. Each of these genetic tests has its own benefits and limitations. The main advantages compared to the tissue test are that liquid biopsy is a non-invasive and easily repeatable test with the value of better representing tumor heterogeneity than primary biopsy and of capturing changes and/or resistance mutations in the genetic tumor profile during disease progression. Furthermore, ctDNA can inform about mutation status and guide treatment options in patients with mCRPC. Clinical validation and test implementation into routine clinical practice are currently very limited. In this review, we discuss the state of the art of the ctDNA test in prostate cancer compared to blood and tissue testing. We also illustrate the ctDNA testing workflow, the available techniques for ctDNA extraction, sequencing, and analysis, describing advantages and limits of each techniques.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11566/290946
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