Advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease, characterized by several subtypes with distinctive genetic and epigenetic patterns. During the last years, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revamped the standard of care of several tumors such as non-small cell lung cancer and melanoma, highlighting the role of immune cells in tumor microenvironment (TME) and their impact on cancer progression and treatment efficacy. An “immunoscore,” based on the percentage of two lymphocyte populations both at tumor core and invasive margin, has been shown to improve prediction of treatment outcome when added to UICC-TNM classification. To date, pembrolizumab, an anti-programmed death protein 1 (PD1) inhibitor, has gained approval as first-line therapy for mismatch-repair-deficient (dMMR) and microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) advanced CRC. On the other hand, no reports of efficacy have been presented in mismatch-repair-proficient (pMMR) and microsatellite instability-low (MSI-L) or microsatellite stable (MSS) CRC. This group includes roughly 95% of all advanced CRC, and standard chemotherapy, in addition to anti-EGFR or anti-angiogenesis drugs, still represents first treatment choice. Hopefully, deeper understanding of CRC immune landscape and of the impact of specific genetic and epigenetic alterations on tumor immunogenicity might lead to the development of new drug combination strategies to overcome ICIs resistance in pMMR CRC, thus paving the way for immunotherapy even in this subgroup.

Beyond Microsatellite Instability: Evolving Strategies Integrating Immunotherapy for Microsatellite Stable Colorectal Cancer

Pecci F.;Cantini L.;Lenci E.;Lupi A.;Crocetti S.;Giglio E.;Giampieri R.;Berardi R.
2021

Abstract

Advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease, characterized by several subtypes with distinctive genetic and epigenetic patterns. During the last years, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revamped the standard of care of several tumors such as non-small cell lung cancer and melanoma, highlighting the role of immune cells in tumor microenvironment (TME) and their impact on cancer progression and treatment efficacy. An “immunoscore,” based on the percentage of two lymphocyte populations both at tumor core and invasive margin, has been shown to improve prediction of treatment outcome when added to UICC-TNM classification. To date, pembrolizumab, an anti-programmed death protein 1 (PD1) inhibitor, has gained approval as first-line therapy for mismatch-repair-deficient (dMMR) and microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) advanced CRC. On the other hand, no reports of efficacy have been presented in mismatch-repair-proficient (pMMR) and microsatellite instability-low (MSI-L) or microsatellite stable (MSS) CRC. This group includes roughly 95% of all advanced CRC, and standard chemotherapy, in addition to anti-EGFR or anti-angiogenesis drugs, still represents first treatment choice. Hopefully, deeper understanding of CRC immune landscape and of the impact of specific genetic and epigenetic alterations on tumor immunogenicity might lead to the development of new drug combination strategies to overcome ICIs resistance in pMMR CRC, thus paving the way for immunotherapy even in this subgroup.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11566/290801
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