Extracellular NAD represents a key signaling molecule in different physiological and pathological conditions. It exerts such function both directly, through the activation of specific purinergic receptors, or indirectly, serving as substrate of ectoenzymes, such as CD73, nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1, CD38 and its paralog CD157, and ecto ADP ribosyltransferases. By hydrolyzing NAD, these enzymes dictate extracellular NAD availability, thus regulating its direct signaling role. In addition, they can generate from NAD smaller signaling molecules, like the immunomodulator adenosine, or they can use NAD to ADP-ribosylate various extracellular proteins and membrane receptors, with significant impact on the control of immunity, inflammatory response, tumorigenesis, and other diseases. Besides, they release from NAD several pyridine metabolites that can be taken up by the cell for the intracellular regeneration of NAD itself. The extracellular environment also hosts nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase and nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase, which inside the cell catalyze key reactions in NAD salvaging pathways. The extracellular forms of these enzymes behave as cytokines, with pro-inflammatory functions. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the extracellular NAD metabolome and describes the major biochemical properties of the enzymes involved in extracellular NAD metabolism, focusing on the contribution of their catalytic activities to the biological function. By uncovering the controversies and gaps in their characterization, further research directions are suggested, also to better exploit the great potential of these enzymes as therapeutic targets in various human diseases.
Enzymology of extracellular NAD metabolism / Gasparrini, M.; Sorci, L.; Raffaelli, N.. - In: CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR LIFE SCIENCES. - ISSN 1420-682X. - 78:7(2021), pp. 3317-3331. [10.1007/s00018-020-03742-1]