Background Tooth whitening is one of the most requested dental treatments, but it still presents some side effects. Indeed, the bleaching agent can generate patients’ discomfort and dental hard tissue damages, not achieving an efficient and long-lasting treatment with optimum whitening effect. To overcome these limitations, the bleaching agents containing nano-hydroxyapatite can represent a reliable solution to avoid these detrimental effects. Methods In this study, human third molars were treated with commercial bleaching agents, containing nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) and 6% (at-home treatment), 12% and 18% (in-office treatments) of hydrogen peroxide (HP), named respectively G1, G2 and G3. The results were evaluated descriptively and analytically using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), comparing the treated groups with a commercial gel containing 10% carbamide peroxide (CONV) and with a non-treated control group (CTRL). Results ATR-FTIR analysis revealed a similar composition in carbonates and phosphates for CTRL, G1 and G2 groups, which showed no significant differences in their spectral profiles; an increased amount of organic matter was found in G3, while CONV displayed an intermediate behavior. SEM analysis did not highlight significant changes in the enamel microstructure of G1 and CONV when compared to CTRL; the pattern observed in G2 presented a slight increase of enamel irregularities, while G3 displayed a partial removal of the aprismatic layer and microporosities. No evident effects due to nHA were observed in the structure of the hydroxyapatite component of G1, G2 and CONV, if compared to CTRL, while G3 showed a slight loss of crystallinity. In all groups, EDS identified slight changes in the concentration of chemical elements O and Ca, while the Ca/P ratio was similar when compared to CTRL. Conclusion The obtained results suggest that the application of the tested commercial bleaching agents, with a concentration of HP up to 12%, does not alter the morphological and chemical composition of the enamel surface and maintains its crystallinity.

ATR-FTIR, EDS and SEM evaluations of enamel structure after treatment with hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents loaded with nano-hydroxyapatite particles

Orilisi, Giulia;Tosco, Vincenzo;Monterubbianesi, Riccardo;Notarstefano, Valentina;Özcan, Mutlu;Putignano, Angelo;Orsini, Giovanna
2021

Abstract

Background Tooth whitening is one of the most requested dental treatments, but it still presents some side effects. Indeed, the bleaching agent can generate patients’ discomfort and dental hard tissue damages, not achieving an efficient and long-lasting treatment with optimum whitening effect. To overcome these limitations, the bleaching agents containing nano-hydroxyapatite can represent a reliable solution to avoid these detrimental effects. Methods In this study, human third molars were treated with commercial bleaching agents, containing nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) and 6% (at-home treatment), 12% and 18% (in-office treatments) of hydrogen peroxide (HP), named respectively G1, G2 and G3. The results were evaluated descriptively and analytically using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), comparing the treated groups with a commercial gel containing 10% carbamide peroxide (CONV) and with a non-treated control group (CTRL). Results ATR-FTIR analysis revealed a similar composition in carbonates and phosphates for CTRL, G1 and G2 groups, which showed no significant differences in their spectral profiles; an increased amount of organic matter was found in G3, while CONV displayed an intermediate behavior. SEM analysis did not highlight significant changes in the enamel microstructure of G1 and CONV when compared to CTRL; the pattern observed in G2 presented a slight increase of enamel irregularities, while G3 displayed a partial removal of the aprismatic layer and microporosities. No evident effects due to nHA were observed in the structure of the hydroxyapatite component of G1, G2 and CONV, if compared to CTRL, while G3 showed a slight loss of crystallinity. In all groups, EDS identified slight changes in the concentration of chemical elements O and Ca, while the Ca/P ratio was similar when compared to CTRL. Conclusion The obtained results suggest that the application of the tested commercial bleaching agents, with a concentration of HP up to 12%, does not alter the morphological and chemical composition of the enamel surface and maintains its crystallinity.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11566/287629
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