Background: The mitochondrial cofactors α-lipoic acid (ALA), coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and carnitine (CARN) play distinct and complementary roles in mitochondrial functioning, along with strong antioxidant actions. Also termed mitochondrial nutrients (MNs), these cofactors have demonstrated specific protective actions in a number of chronic disorders, as assessed in a well-established body of literature. Methods: Using PubMed, the authors searched for articles containing information on the utilization of MNs in inflammatory disorders as assessed from in vitro and animal studies, and in clinical trials, in terms of exerting anti-inflammatory actions. Results: The retrieved literature provided evidence relating acute pathologic conditions, such as sepsis and pneumonia, with a number of redox endpoints of biological and clinical relevance. Among these findings, both ALA and CARN were effective in counteracting inflammation-associated redox biomarkers, while CoQ10 showed decreased levels in proinflammatory conditions. MN-associated antioxidant actions were applied in a number of acute disorders, mostly using one MN. The body of literature assessing the safety and the complementary roles of MNs taken together suggests an adjuvant role of MN combinations in counteracting oxidative stress in sepsis and other acute disorders, including COVID-19-associated pneumonia. Conclusions: The present state of art in the use of individual MNs in acute disorders suggests planning adjuvant therapy trials utilizing MN combinations aimed at counteracting proinflammatory conditions, as in the case of pneumonia and the COVID-19 pandemic.
Potential roles of mitochondrial cofactors in the adjuvant mitigation of proinflammatory acute infections, as in the case of sepsis and COVID-19 pneumonia / Pagano, G.; Manfredi, C.; Pallardo, F. V.; Lyakhovich, A.; Tiano, L.; Trifuoggi, M.. - In: INFLAMMATION RESEARCH. - ISSN 1023-3830. - (2020). [10.1007/s00011-020-01423-0]