Background: Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) have become the largest group of new psychoactive substances monitored by the European Union Early Warning System. Despite the wide diffusion on the market, data regarding effects, toxicities, and mechanisms as well as toxic/lethal doses are still scarce. Methods: A comprehensive literature search for articles published up to January 2019 was performed in multiple electronic databases. Only cases of death in which toxicological analyses revealed the presence of SCRAs in blood or urine and at least an external examination was performed, including those occurred in emergency departments, were included. Results: Of 380 studies identified, 354 were excluded, while 8 additional manuscripts were included through the screening of relevant references cited in the selected articles. A total number of 34 manuscripts (8 case series and 26 case reports) were included. Conclusions: Typical toxic ranges for SCRAs have not been so far identified, and the results of toxicological analyses should be interpreted with caution. In death cases involving SCRAs, a thorough post-mortem examination is a prerequisite to assess the role of the substance use in the deceased and to identify a probable mechanism of death. Even after a comprehensive analysis of clinical, circumstantial, toxicological, and autoptic data, the cause and manner of death remain unclear in some cases.

Post-mortem toxicology: A systematic review of death cases involving synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists / Giorgetti, A.; Busardo, F. P.; Tittarelli, R.; Auwarter, V.; Giorgetti, R.. - In: FRONTIERS IN PSYCHIATRY. - ISSN 1664-0640. - 11:(2020), pp. 1-22. [10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00464]

Post-mortem toxicology: A systematic review of death cases involving synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists

Giorgetti A.;Busardo F. P.;Tittarelli R.;Auwarter V.;Giorgetti R.
2020-01-01

Abstract

Background: Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) have become the largest group of new psychoactive substances monitored by the European Union Early Warning System. Despite the wide diffusion on the market, data regarding effects, toxicities, and mechanisms as well as toxic/lethal doses are still scarce. Methods: A comprehensive literature search for articles published up to January 2019 was performed in multiple electronic databases. Only cases of death in which toxicological analyses revealed the presence of SCRAs in blood or urine and at least an external examination was performed, including those occurred in emergency departments, were included. Results: Of 380 studies identified, 354 were excluded, while 8 additional manuscripts were included through the screening of relevant references cited in the selected articles. A total number of 34 manuscripts (8 case series and 26 case reports) were included. Conclusions: Typical toxic ranges for SCRAs have not been so far identified, and the results of toxicological analyses should be interpreted with caution. In death cases involving SCRAs, a thorough post-mortem examination is a prerequisite to assess the role of the substance use in the deceased and to identify a probable mechanism of death. Even after a comprehensive analysis of clinical, circumstantial, toxicological, and autoptic data, the cause and manner of death remain unclear in some cases.
2020
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11566/287002
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