Sustainable approaches to control phytoplasma-associated diseases are of utmost importance. The use of phytoplasma-resistant host plants and of phytoplasma-free material for new plantings could represent a starting point for phytoplasma disease management. The early identification of infected host plants and insect vectors represent necessary tools in preventing epidemics of diseases through the appropriate management of agro-ecosystems subjected to epidemic outbreaks. This approach can be integrated with the use of resistance inducers and of biocontrol microorganisms able to act as against phytoplasmas and/or their insect vectors. Furthermore comparative genomic approach facilitates the identification of candidate genes involved in the interactions with hosts, and together with the cultivation of phytoplasmas is a key point for improving the knowledge of these bacterial pathogens aimed to implement effective integrated management control strategies.
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