Management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma has drastically changed in the last few years, witnessing the advent of more and more target therapies and, recently, of immune-checkpoint inhibitors. On the other hand, the adjuvant setting still lacks a clear beneficial treatment. Medical treatment still remains a compelling challenge. A large number of clinical trials is ongoing with the aim to identify new therapeutic approaches to expand the options in our repertoire. Several strategies are under investigation in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). These include new targeted agents and combinations of target therapy and immunotherapy. Programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1), programmed death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) are just part of the intricate network that regulates our immune response to cancer cells. Co-stimulators, such as glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 4 (OX40), and co-repressors, example.g. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3) and lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3), also take part. As knowledge of the functioning of the immune system grows, so do these pathways to target with new drugs. This review is an overview of the current state of the clinical research, providing a report of ongoing Phase I, II and III clinical trials for localized and metastatic RCC, including novel target therapies, novel immunotherapy agents and new combinations strategies.
Novel Therapeutic Approaches and Targets Currently Under Evaluation for Renal Cell Carcinoma: Waiting for the Revolution / Mollica, V.; Di Nunno, V.; Gatto, L.; Santoni, M.; Cimadamore, A.; Cheng, L.; Lopez-Beltran, A.; Montironi, R.; Pisconti, S.; Battelli, N.; Massari, F.. - In: CLINICAL DRUG INVESTIGATION. - ISSN 1173-2563. - 39:6(2019), pp. 503-519. [10.1007/s40261-019-00773-w]