This study uses Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Cost (LCC) to compare three process design alternatives for treating wastewater from galvanic industry. The proposed processes have been developed in according to a zero-liquid discharge, ZLD, approach and included reverse osmosis for the concentration, evaporation and crystallization of salts, mainly calcium chloride. The various scenarios differ for the type of utilities used for the operation (steam and as alternative hot water from thermal waste) and from an optimization of the crystallization step that provided an energy recovery from distillate. Results show that by using thermal waste as utilities for the operation of evaporation, crystallization and the optimization of crystallization unit is the most environmentally and economically favourable alternative.
Case study on technical feasibility of galvanic wastewater treatment plant based on life cycle assessment and costing approach / Innocenzi, V.; Cantarini, F.; Amato, A.; Morico, B.; Ippolito, N. M.; Beolchini, F.; Prisciandaro, M.; Veglio, F.. - In: JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICAL ENGINEERING. - ISSN 2213-3437. - 8:6(2020), p. 104535. [10.1016/j.jece.2020.104535]