Introduction: During the past years, endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) has gradually spread into clinical practice. However, the role of EMB in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases remains a controversial issue, especially in the setting of unexplained ventricular arrhythmias. Areas covered: This review describes the methodology of EMB guided by combined use of three-dimensional electroanatomical mapping systems and intracardiac echo and summarizes the classical, fluoroscopy-guided EMB technique. Finally, the personal experience acquired with the ‘electrophysiologist-made’ integration methodology has been reported. Expert commentary: Since EMB has been considered in the setting of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, cardiac sarcoidosis, drug toxicity, and/or other diseases causing malignant ventricular arrhythmias, the electrophysiologists have started to perform firsthand biopsy. The electrophysiologists introduced the use of electroanatomical mapping systems and intracardiac echo. This new methodology improved significantly biopsy diagnostic yield and allowed to reduce complications.
Electroanatomical mapping systems and intracardiac echo integration for guided endomyocardial biopsy / Casella, M.; Dello Russo, A.; Vettor, G.; Lumia, G.; Catto, V.; Sommariva, E.; Ribatti, V.; Biagioli, V.; Tundo, F.; Carbucicchio, C.; Di Biase, L.; Natale, A.; Tondo, C.. - In: EXPERT REVIEW OF MEDICAL DEVICES. - ISSN 1743-4440. - 14:8(2017), pp. 609-619. [10.1080/17434440.2017.1351875]