Objective. The prevalence of some human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes has been shown to change with age. So, also the distribution of HPV genotypes included in the nonavalent vaccine may not be the same at all ages, and this could mean that vaccine protection against cervical cancer may be affected by age. The present study aimed to evaluate whether there are age-related changes in the fraction of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) attributable to HPV genotypes included in the nonavalent vaccine. Methods. Two hundred four consecutive women undergoing conization with a histological diagnosis of CIN3 were retrospectively analyzed. All included women had a preconization HPV genotyping (HPV Sign (R) Genotyping Test). The women were divided into three groups according to age: <35, 35-44, and >= 45 years of age. Based on HPV genotypes detected in cervical lesions, the age-related changes in the expected vaccine protection were evaluated by the Cochran-Armitage test for trend. Results. The fraction of CIN3 attributable to HPV genotypes included in the nonavalent vaccine showed a significant negative trend with increasing age, with potential vaccine protection of 82% after the age of 45 (p=0.006). The rate of HPV-16 and HPV-33, included in the vaccine, showed a negative trend with age (p=0.047 and p=0.044, respectively). Among HPV genotypes not covered by the vaccine, the rate of non-high-risk HPVs (genotypes: 53-54-70-73-82-85-87) showed a significant positive trend with increasing age (p=0.018). Conclusions. Although the fraction of CIN3 attributable to genotypes included in the nonavalent HPV vaccine was high even after age 45, older women appeared to be more at risk of high-grade CIN related to HPV genotypes not included in the vaccine. Interestingly, older women showed a higher rate of precancerous cervical lesions associated with non-high-risk HPV. The present findings seem to raise the question about the management of cervical pathology at a later age in a future postvaccination era.
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