Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is characterized by a high mortality of elderly men with age-related comorbidities. In most of these patients, uncontrolled local and systemic hyperinflammation induces severe and often lethal outcomes. The aging process is characterized by the gradual development of a chronic subclinical systemic inflammation (inflamm-aging) and by acquired immune system impairment (immune senescence). Here, we advance the hypothesis that four well-recognized features of aging contribute to the disproportionate SARS-CoV-2 mortality suffered by elderly men: i. the presence of subclinical systemic inflammation without overt disease, ii. a blunted acquired immune system and type I interferon response due to the chronic inflammation; iii. the downregulation of ACE2 (i.e. the SARS-CoV-2 receptor); and iv. accelerated biological aging. The high mortality rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection suggests that clarification of the mechanisms of inflamm-aging and immune senescence can help combat not only age-related disorders but also SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Inflamm-aging: Why older men are the most susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 complicated outcomes / Bonafè, Massimiliano; Prattichizzo, Francesco; Giuliani, Angelica; Storci, Gianluca; Sabbatinelli, Jacopo; Olivieri, Fabiola. - In: CYTOKINE & GROWTH FACTOR REVIEWS. - ISSN 1359-6101. - 53:(2020), pp. 33-37. [10.1016/j.cytogfr.2020.04.005]