Background: Rectum-sparing approaches appear to be appropriate in rectal cancer patients with a major (mCR) or complete clinical response (cCR) after neoadjuvant therapy. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of rectum-sparing approaches at 2 years after the completion of neoadjuvant treatment. Study design: Patients with rectal adenocarcinoma eligible to receive neoadjuvant therapy will be prospectively enrolled. Patients will be restaged 7–8 weeks after the completion of neoadjuvant therapy and those with mCR (defined as absence of mass, small mucosal irregularity no more than 2 cm in diameter at endoscopy and no metastatic nodes at MRI) or cCR will be enrolled in the trial. Patients with mCR will undergo local excision, while patients with cCR will either undergo local excision or watch and wait policy. The main end point of the study is to determine the percentage of rectum preservation at 2 years in the enrolled patients. Conclusion: This protocol is the first prospective trial that investigates the role of both local excision and watch and wait approaches in patients treated with neoadjuvant therapy for rectal cancer. The trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02710812).
Rectal sparing approach after preoperative radio- and/or chemotherapy (RESARCH) in patients with rectal cancer: a multicentre observational study / Barina, A.; De Paoli, A.; Delrio, P.; Guerrieri, M.; Muratore, A.; Bianco, F.; Vespa, D.; Asteria, C.; Morpurgo, E.; Restivo, A.; Coco, C.; Pace, U.; Belluco, C.; Aschele, C.; Lonardi, S.; Valentini, V.; Mantello, G.; Maretto, I.; Del Bianco, P.; Perin, A.; Pucciarelli, S.. - In: TECHNIQUES IN COLOPROCTOLOGY. - ISSN 1123-6337. - 21:8(2017), pp. 633-640. [10.1007/s10151-017-1665-1]