Electrical storm (ES) is a clinical condition characterized by three or more ventricular arrhythmia episodes leading to appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapies in a 24 h period. Mostly, arrhythmias responsible of ES are multiple morphologies of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT), but polymorphic VT and ventricular fibrillation can also result in ES. Clinical presentation is very dramatic in most cases, strictly related to the cardiac disease that may worsen electrical and hemodynamic decompensation. Therefore ES management is challenging in the majority of cases and a high mortality is the rule both in the acute and in the long-term phases. Different underlying cardiomyopathies provide significant clues into the mechanism of ES, which can arise in the setting of structural arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathies or rarely in patients with inherited arrhythmic syndrome, impacting on pharmacological treatment, on ICD programming, and on the opportunity to apply strategies of catheter ablation. This latter has become a pivotal form of treatment due to its high efficacy in modifying the arrhythmogenic substrate and in achieving rhythm stability, aiming at reducing recurrences of ventricular arrhythmia and at improving overall survival. In this review, the most relevant epidemiological and clinical aspects of ES, with regard to the acute and long-term follow-up implications, were evaluated, focusing on these novel therapeutic strategies of treatment.
Electrical storm: A clinical and electrophysiological overview / Conti, Sergio; Pala, Salvatore; Biagioli, Viviana; Del Giorno, Giuseppe; Zucchetti, Martina; Russo, Eleonora; Marino, Vittoria; Dello Russo, Antonio; Casella, Michela; Pizzamiglio, Francesca; Catto, Valentina; Tondo, Claudio; Carbucicchio, Corrado. - In: WORLD JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY. - ISSN 1949-8462. - 7:9(2015), pp. 555-61-561. [10.4330/wjc.v7.i9.555]