Landfill leachate possesses high concentrations of ammonia, micropollutants, and heavy metals, and are characterised for low biodegradability. For this reason, conventional treatment technologies may result ineffective for complete pollutant removal. Electrochemical oxidation allows most of the of recalcitrant pollutants to be oxidised effectively within an easy operational and acceptable retention time, without the need to provide additional chemicals, and without producing waste materials. The mineralisation efficiency and electrode durability depend on the nature of the electrode material. The conventionally adopted anodes can contain critical raw materials (CRMs), and are subject to extreme corrosion conditions. CRM-free electrodes, such as carbon and graphite-based, exhibit a lower efficiency, and are subject to faster deactivation, or, as for lead-dioxide-based electrodes, can constitute a hazard due to the release into the effluent of the coating corrosion products. In this study, the relationship between electrode type, CRM content, and the removal efficiencies of organic compounds and ammonium-nitrogen (N-NH 4 ) was investigated. Material criticality was estimated by the supply risk with economic importance indexes reported in the 2017 EU CRM List. The COD and N-NH 4 removal efficiencies were obtained from a literature analysis of 25 publications. The results show that, while single and multi-oxide-coated electrodes may contain low amounts of CRM, but with limited efficiency, boron- doped diamonds (BDD) may constitute the best compromise in terms of a reduced content of CRM and a high mineralisation efficiency.

Electrodes criticality: the impact of CRMs in the leachate electrochemical oxidation / Pierpaoli, Mattia; Rycewicz, Michał; Łuczkiewicz, Aneta; Fudala-Ksiązek, Sylwia; Bogdanowicz, Robert; Ruello, Maria Letizia. - In: MANUFACTURING REVIEW. - ISSN 2265-4224. - ELETTRONICO. - 7:7(2020). [10.1051/mfreview/2020006]

Electrodes criticality: the impact of CRMs in the leachate electrochemical oxidation

Mattia Pierpaoli
Investigation
;
Maria Letizia Ruello
Funding Acquisition
2020-01-01

Abstract

Landfill leachate possesses high concentrations of ammonia, micropollutants, and heavy metals, and are characterised for low biodegradability. For this reason, conventional treatment technologies may result ineffective for complete pollutant removal. Electrochemical oxidation allows most of the of recalcitrant pollutants to be oxidised effectively within an easy operational and acceptable retention time, without the need to provide additional chemicals, and without producing waste materials. The mineralisation efficiency and electrode durability depend on the nature of the electrode material. The conventionally adopted anodes can contain critical raw materials (CRMs), and are subject to extreme corrosion conditions. CRM-free electrodes, such as carbon and graphite-based, exhibit a lower efficiency, and are subject to faster deactivation, or, as for lead-dioxide-based electrodes, can constitute a hazard due to the release into the effluent of the coating corrosion products. In this study, the relationship between electrode type, CRM content, and the removal efficiencies of organic compounds and ammonium-nitrogen (N-NH 4 ) was investigated. Material criticality was estimated by the supply risk with economic importance indexes reported in the 2017 EU CRM List. The COD and N-NH 4 removal efficiencies were obtained from a literature analysis of 25 publications. The results show that, while single and multi-oxide-coated electrodes may contain low amounts of CRM, but with limited efficiency, boron- doped diamonds (BDD) may constitute the best compromise in terms of a reduced content of CRM and a high mineralisation efficiency.
2020
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11566/275026
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