Idiopathic anaphylaxis (IA) or spontaneous anaphylaxis is a diagnosis of exclusion when no cause can be identified. The exact incidence and prevalence of IA are not known. The clinical manifestations of IA are similar to other known causes of anaphylaxis. A typical attack is usually acute in onset and can worsen over minutes to a few hours. The pathophysiology of IA has not yet been fully elucidated, although an IgE-mediated pathway by hitherto unidentified trigger/s might be the main underlying mechanism. Elevated concentrations of urinary histamine and its metabolite, methylimidazole acetic acid, plasma histamine and serum tryptase have been reported, consistent with mast cell activation. There is some evidence that corticosteroids reduce the frequency and severity of episodes of IA, consistent with a steroid-responsive condition. Important differential diagnoses of IA include galactose alpha-1,3 galactose (a carbohydrate contained in red meat) allergy, pigeon tick bite (Argax reflexus), wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, Anisakis simplex allergy and mast cell disorders. Other differential diagnoses include "allergy-mimics" such as asthma masquerading as anaphylaxis, undifferentiated somatoform disorder, panic attacks, globus hystericus, vocal cord dysfunction, scombroid poisoning, vasoactive amine intolerance, carcinoid syndrome and phaeochromocytoma. Acute treatment of IA is the same as for other forms of anaphylaxis. Long-term management is individualized and dictated by frequency and severity of symptoms and involves treatment with H1 and H2 receptor blockers, leukotriene receptor antagonist and consideration for prolonged reducing courses of oral corticosteroids. Patients should possess an epinephrine autoinjector with an anaphylaxis self-management plan. There are anecdotal reports regarding the use of omalizumab. For reasons that remain unclear, the prognosis of IA is generally favourable with appropriate treatment and patient education. If remission cannot be achieved, the diagnosis should be reconsidered.

Idiopathic anaphylaxis / Bilò, Maria Beatrice; Martini, Matteo; Tontini, Chiara; Mohamed, Omar E; Krishna, Mamidipudi T. - In: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGY. - ISSN 0954-7894. - (2019). [10.1111/cea.13402]

Idiopathic anaphylaxis

Bilò, Maria Beatrice
;
Martini, Matteo;Tontini, Chiara;
2019-01-01

Abstract

Idiopathic anaphylaxis (IA) or spontaneous anaphylaxis is a diagnosis of exclusion when no cause can be identified. The exact incidence and prevalence of IA are not known. The clinical manifestations of IA are similar to other known causes of anaphylaxis. A typical attack is usually acute in onset and can worsen over minutes to a few hours. The pathophysiology of IA has not yet been fully elucidated, although an IgE-mediated pathway by hitherto unidentified trigger/s might be the main underlying mechanism. Elevated concentrations of urinary histamine and its metabolite, methylimidazole acetic acid, plasma histamine and serum tryptase have been reported, consistent with mast cell activation. There is some evidence that corticosteroids reduce the frequency and severity of episodes of IA, consistent with a steroid-responsive condition. Important differential diagnoses of IA include galactose alpha-1,3 galactose (a carbohydrate contained in red meat) allergy, pigeon tick bite (Argax reflexus), wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, Anisakis simplex allergy and mast cell disorders. Other differential diagnoses include "allergy-mimics" such as asthma masquerading as anaphylaxis, undifferentiated somatoform disorder, panic attacks, globus hystericus, vocal cord dysfunction, scombroid poisoning, vasoactive amine intolerance, carcinoid syndrome and phaeochromocytoma. Acute treatment of IA is the same as for other forms of anaphylaxis. Long-term management is individualized and dictated by frequency and severity of symptoms and involves treatment with H1 and H2 receptor blockers, leukotriene receptor antagonist and consideration for prolonged reducing courses of oral corticosteroids. Patients should possess an epinephrine autoinjector with an anaphylaxis self-management plan. There are anecdotal reports regarding the use of omalizumab. For reasons that remain unclear, the prognosis of IA is generally favourable with appropriate treatment and patient education. If remission cannot be achieved, the diagnosis should be reconsidered.
2019
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11566/266599
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