Innate and adaptive immunity are both involved in prostate cancer (PCa) carcinogenesis and progression. On this scenario, several immunotherapeutic approaches have been proposed and are presently under extensive investigation in PCa patients. Among emerging immune targets, immune checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyteassociated protein 4 (CTLA-4), anti-Programmed death-1 (PD-1) and anti-Programmed death-ligand-1 (PD-L1) agents seem to represent the most promising candidate for these patients, together with oncolytic viruses and vaccines, used alone or in combined strategies. In this review, we focused on emerging immunotherapeutic approaches in patients with PCa, showing the rational for their association with current standard therapies including anti-androgen agents, chemo- or radiation therapy.
Emerging Immunotargets and Immunotherapies in Prostate Cancer / Montironi, Rodolfo; Santoni, Matteo; Sotte, Valeria; Cheng, Liang; Lopez Beltran, Antonio; Massari, Francesco; Matrana, Marc R; Moch, Holger; Berardi, Rossana; Scarpelli, Marina. - In: CURRENT DRUG TARGETS. - ISSN 1873-5592. - 17:7(2016), p. 777-82.