Stem cell-based tissue engineering therapies involve the administration of ex vivo manipulated stem cell populations for the purpose of repairing and regenerating damaged or diseased tissue. Currently available methods for monitoring transplanted cells are limited. Monitoring stem cell therapy outcomes requires the development of nondestructive strategies capable to identify the location, magnitude, and duration of cellular survival and fate. The recent development of imaging techniques offers great potential for addressing these critical issues by noninvasively tracking the fate of the transplanted cells. We offer a focused presentation of some examples of the use of imaging techniques connected to the nanotechnological world in research areas related to stem cells. In particular, investigations concerning human stem cell treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in animal models, bioscaffolds for cell proliferation to form muscular fi bers, and bone tissue engineering are discussed.
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