The Historical Built Environment (HBE) is subject to growing stresses, deriving from both climate-change related challenges and geo-morphological hazards. Slow-Onset Disasters (SLODs) and Sudden-Onset Disasters (SUODs), strike the HBE gradually (SLODs) and suddenly (SUODs), sometimes at the same time or in rapid succession. The HBE itself is vulnerable to these disasters, due to its intrinsic morphological, typological and construction features. Moreover, the exposure of inhabitants and tourists to the disaster aggravates the risk. Therefore, an effective evaluation of the vulnerability to multi-risks of the HBE and its nodal component, the square, would allow a higher consciousness of the risk and the planning of suitable mitigation actions. While the risk evaluation of the historical buildings has been conducted numerous times in literature, the squares have not been widely considered yet. Therefore, this research proposes a novel methdology for favoring the risk assessment of squares in the HBE, by identifying and testing suitable quantitative parameters for delineating the vulnerability to risk of the square. The parameters are tested on a relevant and significant context, the italian one, due to the recurring SLODs and SUODs and the presence of numerous HBEs hosting cultural heritage. The parameters are then employed to further deepen the investigation, by defining archetype built environment typologies (BETs) in the italian HBE. The BETs have been identified based on a cluster analysis, and represent a useful mean for expeditious assessment of vulnerability and for possible future employment for testing resilience strategies.
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