This chapter evaluates short-term socioeconomic dynamics of local districts with the aim at identifying multifaceted dimensions of regional competitiveness in Italy. The spatial distribution of per worker, per head and per land value added was correlated with several predictors of the socioeconomic background of local districts. The intrinsic geography of economic development was investigated adopting a data mining approach that assesses the multiple relationship between value added and contextual variables. The spatial distribution of value added diverged along urban-rural, North-South and elevation gradients. Average district (per land) value added was highly correlated with indicators of population density and urban centrality. The joint use of value added and social indicators allows a comprehensive analysis of changes in urban spatial structures of highly divided countries.
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