In the area of Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM), many approaches need a supervised procedure of appliance modelling, in order to provide the informations about the appliances to the disaggregation algorithm and to obtain the disaggregated consumptions related to each one of them. In many approaches, the appliance modelling relies on the consumption footprint, which is a typical working cycle of the appliance. Since the NILM system has only the aggregated power consumption available, the recorded footprint might be corrupted by other appliances, which can not be turned off during this period, i.e., the fridge and freezer in the household. Furthermore, the user needs a facilitated procedure, in order to obtain a clean footprint from the aggregated power signal in real scenario. Therefore, a user-aided footprint extraction procedure is needed. In this work, this procedure is defined as a NILM problem with two sources, i.e., the desired appliance and the fridge-freezer combination. One of the resulting disaggregated profiles of the algorithm corresponds to the extracted footprint. Then, this is used for the appliance modelling stage to create te corresponding Hidden Markov Model (HMM), suitable for the Additive Factorial Approximate Maximum a Posteriori (AFAMAP) algorithm. The effectiveness of the footprint extraction procedure is evaluated through the confidence of the disaggregation output of a real problem, using a span of 30 days data taken from two different datasets (AMPds, ECO). The experiments are conducted using the HMM from the extracted footprint, compared to the con- fidence of the same problem using the HMM from the true footprint, as appliance level consumption. The results show that the performance are comparable, with the worst relative F1 loss of 3.83%, demonstrating the effectiveness of the footprint extraction procedure.
User-aided Footprint Extraction for Appliance Modelling in Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring / Bonfigli, Roberto; Principi, Emanuele; Squartini, Stefano; Fagiani, Marco; Severini, Marco; Piazza, Francesco. - ELETTRONICO. - (2017). (Intervento presentato al convegno 2016 IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence Applications in Smart Grid - SSCI 2016 tenutosi a Athens, Greece nel 6-9 december 2016) [10.1109/SSCI.2016.7849843].