In this paper, the unsupervised approach recently proposed by the authors for automatic leakage detection in smart water grids is extended. First of all, the EPANET tool is adopted in order to simulate more realistic leakages. Also, with respect to the original work, an additional time resolution, of 30 minutes, is included, based on the water dataset of the Almanac of Minutely Power Dataset (AMPds). New experiments are performed, as well, to evaluate the results of the application of both temporal features and pressure data. The pressure data is obtained by means of the EPANEt tool, whereas the leakages are induced at run-time for a more realistic behaviour. Two alternative sets of temporal features are evaluated by combining them with the features extracted from both flow and pressure data. Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs), Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), and One-Class Support Vector Machine (OC-SVM) are used to characterize the normal data behaviour, under a comparative perspective. A feature selection strategy is adopted in computer simulations and the resulting performance indices are evaluated in terms of Area Under Curve (AUC). The obtained results show that the introduction of the temporal information produces a slight performance improvement for both flow and pressure data, but, most importantly, the combination of flow and pressure features allows a significant improvement of leakage detection for both GMM and HMM at every resolution, up to 88% of AUC.
Exploiting temporal features and pressure data for automatic leakage detection in smart water grids / Fagiani, Marco; Squartini, Stefano; Bonfigli, Roberto; Severini, Marco; Piazza, Francesco. - ELETTRONICO. - (2016), pp. 295-302. (Intervento presentato al convegno 2016 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation - IEEE CEC 2016 tenutosi a Vancouver, Canada nel 25-29 July 2016) [10.1109/CEC.2016.7743808].