Carbon dioxide is recognized as an interesting working fluid for heat pumps used in residential applications mostly for the reduced environmental impact, being a natural refrigerant with low global warming potential and ozone depletion potential (GWP = 1 and ODP = 0). The performance achievable must be optimized in order to make the CO2 competitive with other refrigerants. In this paper optimization is sought by studying an existing installation in an apartment where a CO2 heat pump for heating, cooling and hot water production is present. A dynamic simulation of the building with its emission and production system is set up in order to evaluate possible implementation of demand side management (DSM) control strategies: 3 different configurations of the system are compared and 2 control strategies of demand side management are tested (i.e. peak shaving and load shifting). Peak shaving strategy with a properly sized storage tank (1 m(3)) was demonstrated applicable for space heating because it maintains the discomfort hours less than 10% of the total working hours.
Performance analysis of a carbon dioxide heat pump installed in a residential application / Arteconi, Alessia; Ciarrocchi, Eleonora; Polonara, Fabio; Chen, J. F.; Deng, S.; Wang, R. Z.. - ELETTRONICO. - (2014), pp. 520-526. (Intervento presentato al convegno 11th IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Refrigerants, GL 2014 tenutosi a Shangri-La Hotel, 78 Beishan Road, Hangzhou, China nel 2014).